The reformation saw the beginning of printing, which came hand in hand with playing cards. Moreover, in Germany many playing cards were a direct reflection of the ideals of the Reformation. Even German suit marks harken back to early Christian ideals.
It was during the same era that manuals for cartomancy, or fortune telling by cards, started to appear, starting with Marcolini's Le Sorti. Sortilege with cards was strictly forbidden by the church, which helps us to know that it was happening.